The name diamond is derived from the ancient Greek αδάμας (adámas), "proper", "unalterable", "unbreakable, untamed",
from ἀ- (a-), "un-" + δαμάω (damáō), "I overpower, I tame". Diamonds are thought to have been first recognized and
mined in India, where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could be found many centuries ago along the rivers
Penner, Krishna and Godavari. Diamonds have been known in India for at least 3,000 years but most likely 6,000 years.
Other unique qualities of the diamond include its transparency, luster and dispersion of light. A diamond that is
created from 100-percent carbon will be completely transparent. Diamonds often contain other elements that can
affect their color. Although we often think of diamonds as being clear, there are also blue, red, black, pale green,
pink and violet diamonds. These natural colored diamonds are the truly rare ones, and thereby can sometimes be the
The intimacy between emerald and jewelry art dates back to Gallo - Roman era when this newly discovered stone was cut
into natural hexagonal form to be a part of Hellenistic jewelry. It was the exquisite art of Meenakari in mogul period
that brought the best of emerald in terms of color and luster. Since then emerald jewelry is seen as an epitome of
royalty in itself.
True beauty of emerald lies in its color. Unlike other colored gemstones one could easily pick a right colored emerald
among its various assortments. Color variety in emerald ranges from pale yellowish green to greens with extreme gray
saturation. Emeralds in vivid deep to medium green tone with no secondary hue narrate their own quality.
It's very rare to find emeralds free from inclusions. As a result eye-clean emeralds are considered to
The ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. The ruby is considered
one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald, and the diamond.
Prices of rubies are primarily determined by color. The brightest and most valuable "red" called pigeon blood-red,
commands a huge premium over other rubies of similar quality. After color follows clarity: similar to diamonds, a
clear stone will command a premium, but a ruby without any needle-like rutile inclusions may indicate that the
stone has been treated. Cut and carat (weight) also determine the price.
The cost of natural sapphires varies depending on their color, clarity, size, cut, and overall quality – as well as
their geographic origin, oddly enough. Sapphire and rubies are often found together in the same area, but one gem is
usually more abundant.
Sapphires may be treated by several methods to enhance and improve their clarity and color. It is common practice to
heat natural sapphires to improve or enhance color. This is done by heating the sapphires in air to temperatures
between 500 and 1800 °C for several hours, or by heating in a nitrogen-deficient atmosphere oven for seven days or
more. Upon heating, the stone becomes a more blue in color but loses some of the rutile inclusions (silk).
When high heat temperatures are used, the stone loses all of the silk and becomes clear under magnification.
Evidence of sapphire and other gemstones being subjected to heating goes back to, at least, Roman times.
Un-heated stones are quite rare and will often be sold accompanied by a certificate from an independent
gemological laboratory attesting to "no evidence of heat treatment".